Inanna - Dumuzi Mythos - A Comparative Study | Mark Lamarre - viajeras.info
The third part of the Cycle of Inanna is the Courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi. . It is Inanna (or her earthly representative, the High Priestess of Uruk/the land) . They were sons of god and goddess, but this relationship, important as it was in. The courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi is one of the oldest love poems from the ancient world. there are no surviving texts to describe their relationship (unless we identify Yahweh with Ba'al). A piece of linen, big or small, is always needed. The tale of a young hero or god who marries a powerful but vengeful goddess echoes Marriage of Innana and Dumuzi (Wikimedia Commons) . Tammuz and Ishtar are brought into close relationship—he is her "husband" (lover?), and this.
Thus confusion came to exist as to the particular deity in whose honor the rites were performed, or the deities were identified. Among those with whom Adonis was either confused or identified were Apollo, Apsyrtos O. But of especial note were Attis and Osiris. The closeness of relationship of these may be seen in a somewhat overemphasized form in J. Frazer's Adonis, Attis, and Osiris, passim London, The connection with Osiris comes out particularly in the story of the body of Osiris, or his head, later rationalized into a letter, which was yearly committed to the sea at Alexandria and made its way to Byblus M.
Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros, die Bibel und Homer, pp. The mourning of Isis for Osiris, to say nothing of that of the farmers who called on Isis as they cut the first sheaf of grain Diodorus Siculus, I.
Attis was a Phrygian deity whose myth relates that he was either killed by a boar or bled to death from self-castration, and orgiastic rites and mourning marked his cult; in this case also a goddess, Cybele the "Great Mother," was the objective of the worship J. Rather less obvious is the relationship of Adonis and Dionysus, yet Plutarch testifies explicitly Symposiaca problemata, IV.
This identification of Adonis with other gods was not confined to the Greeks. In Babylonia Tammuz was the same as an early god Shulgur M.
Jastrow, Religion of Assyria and Babylonia, p. Whether in the writings of Sanchuniathon q. The Rites Just as the myth and conceptions concerning the deity varied in different localities, so the details of the celebration differed in accordance with the genius of place and people. The salient feature was the mourning, principally by women, and generally accompanied by the mournful strains of the flute. In the Adapa epic but nowhere else the mourning seems to have included Gishzida.
The mourners beat their breasts and in some cases shaved their heads, the hair going to the temples as a part of the perquisites of the shrine.
From notices as cited above respecting the observances at Byblus, Alexandria, and Athens it is gathered that an effigy or image of Adonis was made, washed, dressed, incensed, and laid on a couch or bier at Alexandria an image of Aphrodite was made and laid on a couch by that of Adonis, and the observance celebrated the wedding of the two deities. Where classic influences prevailed, the image represented a beautiful youth.
The image was surrounded by fresh flowers and plants, and at Alexandria also with the early fruits, the "gardens of Adonis," myrrh, and cakes of honey, meal, and oil, and after this was done the wailing and singing of dirges began Sappho, fragment 6. After the wailing and on the second day, the image was carried away and cast into the river or the sea, or was given burial, the women accompanying the procession with bared breasts and singing an ode which besought prosperity for the coming year.
At Harran the story went that the " lord of Adonis " slew him and ground his bones in a mill, and then scattered the fragments; hence the women of that region during the celebration ate nothing that had passed through the mill Frazer, Adonis, etc. In Cyprus it was customary to build a pyre for Adonis and to cast therein live doves the bird of Aphrodite. Apparently with the mourning for Tammuz there was combined lamentation for departed friends and relations, so that the occasion was a sort of "All Souls' Day" Jastrow, ut.
These were shallow receptacles much like fern dishes, filled with earth, sowed with various kinds of seeds, and for a few days before the festival carefully tended by the women. Under the warm eastern sun the seeds germinated quickly, but when left unwatered, the same sun quickly dried the shallow earth and the growth withered.
The Courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi
The '' gardens '' were then carried to a spring, river, or the sea and thrown in. That this was an old charm intended to promote the growth of vegetation is practically certain Frazer, Adonis, etc. Rochette, Revue archiologigue, viii.
Jeremias, Das Alte Testament, etc. This feature, perhaps not a part of the original rites in Babylonia, has always mystified the narrators and students, some of them assuming strangely that the incensing of the effigy was supposed to effect revivification. But on that hypothesis why should burial or the casting of the effigy in river or sea follow? In accordance with the naive magic of early times, persisting after its original meaning had been forgotten, the revival to life can be understood as expected after the ceremonial of casting "garden" or effigy into the supposed sources of fertilization.
The surface meaning gives just the usual order of procedure and the results of making these "gardens," while "the day of grief and desperate sorrow" certainly looks like the mourning. The word rendered "pleasant " na'amanim —probably containing a double reference to the anemone sacred to Adonis and to the meaning " darling," an epithet often applied to him—seems to make the reference to Adonis or Tammuz quite certain.
Date of the Festival. The date of the festival has caused no little discussion. The feature of the "gardens " as just related suggests surely the heat of summer. According to Frazer Adonis, etc. Smith, the month Tammuz does not absolutely fix the time of year, inasmuch as the Syrian calendars varied considerably.
The description in Theocritus, Idyl, xv.
Mannhardt, Antike Wold und Feldkulte, p. The data from Byblus are confusing. Lucian De dea Syria, vi. There was a spring festival at Byblus, which, however, had no connection with Adonis, and Lucian may have confused his references. On the other hand, the scarlet anemone blooms at this time of the year, and the legend derived its color from the blood of the god either as springing from it or being stained by it. The Arabs still call the flower "the wounds of Na'aman " na'aman being an epithet of Adonis; W.
Inanna and Dumuzi - Jason and the Argonauts
Smith, in Historical Review, ii. Yet somewhat inconsistent with this in the same region the color of the red rose, blooming in June, is attributed to the blood from Aphrodite's feet wounded by a thorn as she went to meet her lover. In Attica the date is fixed for midsummer by the departure of the expedition to Sicily ut sup.
At Hierapolis in Syria there was an annual festival at the beginning of spring at which trees were cut down and planted in the temple court, animals and birds were hung on them as sacrifices, and then fire was set and the whole consumed. This may have been wrongly brought into connection with the Cypriote festival described above and have influenced the conception of the date. General indications from many incidental allusions suggest the beginning of the harvest season, which for Syria, Greece, and Egypt varies from the end of March to the end of June.
The dating in spring may be due to confusion of the Adonis celebration with one to Aphrodite. The final conclusion will in some degree rest upon the solution of the question of the significance of Tammuz-Adonis. Significance of the Deity What Tammuz-Adonis stood for in the popular mind was as variously answered in antiquity as now.
Zimmern Schrader, KAT, p. His position is strong, though allowance has to be made for the thesis which underlies his volume. Jeremias Das Alte Testament, etc. The Babylonian relations do little to clear up the question, since Tammuz appears now in the circle of Ea, now in that of Anu, again in that of Shamash cf. The "gardens" might turn the scale in favor of the vegetational theory did they not seem a late intrusion. Baudissin's contention Hauck-Herzog, RE, xix. Were Tammuz the god of the spring sun, the summer solstice would be the time of his death.
To be sure, the roles of solar and vegetational deity are not exclusive; and where great deities like Shamash emerge with definite solar functions, it is not uncommon to find lesser and local deities having originally the same relations relegated to subordinate functions.
This may be the solution of the question. That later philosophical conceptions should advance beyond these was to be expected. So Hippolytus seems to regard Adonis as typifying the soul hoer. The triple conception Adonis-Osiris-Dionysus was regarded as giving a hope for a future life.
The life substance of Adonis was connected with myrrh, which was supposed to arrest decay and so was used in embalming cf. The Orphic hymn cited above makes Adonis hermaphrodite, and this recalls the fact that some Sumerian data raise the question whether Tammuz was not feminine. Origin of Tammuz The question of the origin of Tammuz-Adonis may be regarded as settled. It is no longer possible to regard him as Cypriote in derivation W.
Had he been Semitic, a more general popularity among that people would have been expected. The deity is clearly pre-Semitic Sumerian, attested by the early mention in the Sumerian texts, especially in the Sumerian hymns, as well as by the fact that the later hymns clearly imitate the earlier. Under the Sumerians Tammuz had some importance; with the Semites that disappeared, he became one of the popular as contrasted with the official gods; and but for the popular celebration and the epics he almost drops out of sight.
Among the Assyrians he had no position of note in the national worship. The Kurgarra meets Ereshkigal in the throes of pain, which are compared to birth pangs. She offers a water gift and a grain gift. Ereshkigal informs Inanna that she cannot ascend from the underworld without finding someone to take her place and is therefore accompanied by galla demons to the upper world in order for them to seize a replacement.
Inanna refuses to let Ninshubur or her son, Lullu to serve as her replacement, and so chooses Dumuzi, who is shown sitting on his throne, at which point the story breaks off. It begins with Dumuzi recounting a dream to his sister Geshtinanna who interprets the dream as signifying that the galla demons will pursue him. He hides among four places: In his flight he manages to escape twice by calling to Utu who transforms him into a snake and later, into a gazelle.
Dumuzi is betrayed by a friend, who reveals his hiding places when the Galla demons offer the gifts of water and grain to him. In some versions, Dumuzi drowns or is killed by robbers instead Jacobsen I base my summary on the compilations of Wolkstein and Kramer and Jacobsen The wailing for fear that he may not come, The wailing is verily for the vines; The plot with vines may not give birth to it. That wailing is verily for the barley; The furrow may not give birth to it.
Jacobsen 68 A fly tells them where he is. It is resolved that Dumuzi is to go to the underworld for only half of the year, because his sister has offered to replace him for the other half. When Tammuz rises, the lapis lazuli pipe and the carnelian ring will rise with him, the male and the female mourners will rise with him.
May the dead rise and smell the incense! Angus 45 Most of the mystery religions contained important elements of fertility and agricultural themes. For example, in the Eleusinian Mysteries, the greatest of the Greek mysteries, the related myth as recounted in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter involves Demeter, an earth goddess and her daughter Persephone, who are both related to grain cultivation.
When Persephone is captured and taken to the underworld by Hades, Demeter, in her grief causes the natural world to become sterile. For the Mystery Religion examples, I will use a more liberal mix of textual, ritual, historical evidence and speculation. Lamarre 5 There were the Lesser Mysteries, celebrated around springtime and the Greater Mysteries, which were celebrated in Autumn.
The rituals involved carrying chests from Eleusis to Athens, bathing in the sea, sacrificing a pig to Demeter and Persephone, a procession from Athens to Eleusis while carrying the chest, with singing and dancing, parts of it occurring at night by torchlight. The initiation ceremonies involved fasting, drinking an unidentified beverage, performing various rites with certain symbolic objects, and possibly a sacred marriage resulting in childbirth Meyer A type of mystical vision was experienced, the Epopteia.
According to the neoplatonist philosopher Sallustius, "Every initiation aims at uniting us with the World and with the Deity" qtd. According to Eliade, the Eleusinian initiation "descends directly from an agricultural ritual centered around the death and resurrection of a divinity controlling the fertility of the fields" Rites and Symbols of Initiation and states that The fact that such elements of archaic religious practice recur in the most central position in the Greek and the Greco-Oriental mysteries proves that not only their extraordinary vitality but also their importance for the religious life of humanity Historically, Daniels posits that the origin of the Eleusinian Mysteries date to around BC and may have been influenced by the cults of Tammuz and Osiris Keller posits a possible confluence of influences from Thrace, Egypt, and Crete A kind of spiritual birth or a symbolic of rebirth was an important aspect of the mysteries.
The notion of a symbolic death and obtaining happiness after death was also an important aspect. Similarly, the various forms of initiation in primitive societies, which mark the passage from puberty to adult society, the entrance into secret societies, and shamanism involve a symbolic enactment of birth and death.
Therefore symbols involving gestation, childbirth as well as torture, death and funeral rites are prevalent Rites and Symbols of Initiation Returning to the womb, equated with the Great Lamarre 6 Mother, symbolised for example by burial in the earth or being swallowed by a creature is a common motif I shall attempt a comparison of the Dumuzi Mythos4 based on structural paradigms derived from common thematic elements found primarily in Mediterranean Mystery-based Cult myths and rituals as well as other Near Eastern fertility-themed myths.
I have chosen seven themes and will discuss them in comparison to similar elements in other myths and rituals from various sources. Moreover certain common ritual aspects of the Mystery Religions will be compared to aspects of the Dumuzi Mythos, such as vows of secrecy, confessions, baptism and lustral purifications, sacrifices, ascetic preparations, pilgrimages of a penitential nature, self-mortifications and mutilations, robing, crowning, and enthroning Angus For a more focused comparison, see Chart 1, were the seven themes were compared with four different myth cycles Isis and Osiris, Cybele and Attis, Demeter and Persephone, Mary and Christ.
Inanna, Queen of Heaven, is a major fertility goddess in the Sumerian pantheon, whereas Dumuzi is a semi-divine, possibly a divinised king. Here I notice a theme of a subservient role of a divine youth to a major goddess figure. In the Egyptian myth of Isis and Osiris, Osiris Lamarre 8 Lamarre 9 is not subservient to Isis, nor is he a youth; but Isis is responsible for restoring him to life, which many of the goddesses do.
The divine youth figure appears later in the Egyptian myth with the figure of Horus. Moreover, in the Dumuzi Mythos, the roles in relationships are very changeable. Inanna plays the role of sister, mother, wife and even antagonist to Dumuzi. Since the Council of Ephesus in A. Inanna has very strong links to kingship.
Many Sacred Marriage texts outline rituals that involve Inanna or Ishtar and a king, and the king is sometimes identified with Dumuzi. She was known to give prophetic utterances to support kings. Divine kingship in ancient societies is considered to be a religio-political concepts that views a ruler as an incarnation, manifestation, mediator, or agent of the sacred….
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia Osiris is a king. In other similar myths, the importance of kingship is not as pronounced, but the link to Royalty is still important. Attis is a shepherd and both he and Adonis are sons of kings Frazer Persephone becomes Queen of the underworld.
In a more primitive Orphic version of her kidnapping, she descends to the underworld with a swineherd Kerenyi As a shepherd, Dumuzi is associated with milk Burkert Milk is a symbol of rebirth in the Attis mysteries Frazerand Orphism Lamarre 10 When Inanna rises from the underworld, she encounters Dumuzi seated on a throne. Being seated on a throne was a prevalent initiation ritual called thronosis Angus It is an element with various other mysteries related to the notion of rebirth The Tammuz rituals make possible use of statue processions Mettinger Lapinkivi This element is present in the Osiris, Attis Frazerand other mysteries.
Dumuzi is either carried to the underworld or is drowned and dies, in a way similar to the death of Osiris, but the accounts are very fragmentary. There was a pig sacrifice in the mysteries of Eleusis. Furthermore, Dumuzi is gashed with an axe; Attis and Adonis bleed to death Frankfort. Kingship and the Gods The assumed death, lamentations for, and reappearance of Orestes have been compared to the Dionysian Mysteries Murray The scene also has a counterpart in the Attis myth.
According to Eliade, "From one point of view, we may say that all these myths and sagas have an initiatory structure; to descend into Hell alive, confront its monsters and demons, is to undergo an initiatory ordeal" Eliade In a magical text of late antiquity, referring to the Adonis myth, Persephone is explicitly equated with Ereshkigal Burkert Osiris and Dyonisios are equated to a bull Frazer There is a bull sacrifice in cults of Attis and Mithra Meyer 7. Moreover, it is thought that the alteration of Dumuzi and Geshtinanna in the underworld is based upon the alternation of the barley and wine-growing seasons Jacobsen 62 or else a more general alteration between winter and summer seasons Gaster, Themis Dumuzi is connected with grain cereal.
Grain is an important element in the mysteries of Demeter, Osiris, and Mithras Meyer 6. I see no reason why Dumuzi would not groom himself lovingly to meet Inanna! Again in this myth, we have Inanna as a maiden, lovingly initiated by her close family members, as befitted to any girl and boy who is loved and well cared for her his family. I will leave the words of the myth speak for themselves. Now, meditate on how Inanna readied herself to meet Dumuzi. Think of the qualities and the things she used to meet her beloved to be, and transfer her experience to your own next time you see yourself in a position to meet someone new or you go on a date.
You are everything you need to start and finish with, raw and lapidated diamond united as one. This is magic, real and easy to perform, if you only believe hard enough to make it be. What they truly experience is a world that is vibrant and alive, full of meaning in which they totally engage themselves.
This process is described in verses that speak of simple things the lovers do together, like drinking, eating, churning, dancing, singing, tasting, smelling, everyday acts whereby both open up to each other, willing to share everything and everywhere in all worlds they thread upon.
Truth is the foundation for everything in all worlds, for nothing can be built upon idle fantasizing or unensouled acts and dreams. Life is made of ordinary facts that can be made brilliant, if one has the willingness to make them be so. As if these things could be separated in Truth!
Indeed, flesh is the vehicle for the Spirit, and Spirit ensouls flesh. Flesh that can take all forms and shapes, as Physics has shown us. Even a stone is made of fine assembled particles united this way by energy. Mesopotamians knew this a long time ago and gods be blessed we are returning to our full senses: I am not at all surprised, because by now it must be clear to all of you where the Jewish sages found inspiration to write their Song of Songs.Courtship vs. Dating - Heather Lindsey's Vlog
And that cuneiform texts predate Biblical narratives for a couple of centuries at least As for me, I prefer always the earlier sources known to humankind, where the language is much more spontaneous, direct and free.
However, I must say that one of the most incredible presents I received in my life was an illustrated, antiqued and boxed Song of Songs.
I was high for two months at least thereafter! So get a copy of the Song for your beloved. Or find a similarly posh Romeo and Juliet. She called for the bed that rejoices the heart, She called for the bed that sweetens the loins, She called for the bed of kingship, She called for the bed of queenship Inanna called for the bed: Let the bed that sweetens the loins be prepared!
Let the bed of kingship be prepared! Let the bed of queenship be prepared! Let the royal bed be prepared! She called to the king: Interestingly, it has been frequently overlooked the fact that in Mesopotamia, after kingship descended from the avens to Eridu, it is Inanna and Enlil who descend to Earth to choose and crown the king, as described in the myth of Etana.