The Grammar Logs -- Number Two Hundred, Fifty-Eight
Americas · Europe · Asia-Pacific · Africa-Mideast We do not upper-case departments of municipalities, counties and regions (Vancouver's health department). We use Capitalize Communist when referring to a party of that name or an official member, but lower-case . Dates, holidays, historical periods. There are a number of situations where capital letters are needed. Are you confident that you know them all? Have a look at our guide to using capital letters . Join Date: Sep "I could count all the Asian and black kids in my class on two hands," he said craning his neck to peer inside a classroom. I capitalize African American, because the title involves two locations.
They are lower-case as adjectives used merely to distinguish from provincial or state the federal Finance Department. Province, State, City, County, Town etc. They are lower-case standing alone, even when referring to the government or corporate entity he is suing the provinceand in their adjectival form even when accompanied by the name an Edmonton city bylaw, an Alberta provincial inquiry. Royalty Upper-case Royal Family and Royal Household and, by extension, the Royals, which we use only in direct quotesbut only in reference to that of Canada and other Commonwealth monarchies.
Lower-case royalty, royal tour, royal car etc. Note that the former Royal Yacht Britannia was an official name, but lower-case "the royal yacht" in second reference.
This applies to all monarchies. Non-political officeholders Titles of officers in companies, clubs and organizations and appointed government bodies are lower-case, even before names Chrysler president Kurt Weiss; CMA chairman Raymond Braun; chief grain commissioner Milt Schwartz. But upper-case first references to high statutory offices that are unique to a jurisdiction, especially those whose incumbents report to Parliament or a legislature.
In second reference, upper-case a full title when referring to a specific person the Auditor-General said but not a generic word the commissioner reported.
Organizations and their members Upper-case the names of organizations and their commonly accepted short forms the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, the Teamsters, the Grand Orange Lodge of Ontario, the Orangemen.
Upper-case the shortened form for people if we are denoting official membership a Teamster, a Scoutbut not if we are merely describing a philosophical leaning or an occupation.
One can be a steelworker without being a Steelworker, a member of the union. For military organizations, we use lower case for generic or occupational descriptions as opposed to ranks, even when they echo the service's official name the Royal Marines, three marines; the Canadian Coast Guard, two coastguardmen.
But upper-case adjectival forms standing for the organization a Marine investigation. Education terms Upper-case the full names of schools at all levels and the full names of their internal colleges, but lower-case the names of faculties, including faculties that call themselves schools such as schools of law, medicine, nursing.
But note Osgoode Hall Law School. Upper-case Professor when it appears before a name as an honorific, but not when standing alone or combined with "emeritus. Upper-case the full names of chairs, fellowships and awards. Arts and publishing In titles of films, TV and radio programs, books, plays, poems, works of art, record albums, tapes, songs and other musical compositions, upper-case the first and last words and all the principal words in between.
That is, do not upper-case articles or short conjunctions and prepositions Zorba the Greek, Breakfast at Tiffany's. Longer conjunctions and prepositions, such as because, around and through, are jarring in lower case, and so should be capped.
If a title is all caps, we upper-case only the first letters of words. If a title is all lower-case, as in the 5th estate, we conform; however, the first word must be upper-case if the title begins a sentence.
For titles of French works, follow the style of that language and upper-case only the first word and proper names. Magazine is upper-case only if it is part of the name Harper's Magazine, but Maclean's magazine. All-cap names are changed to upper and lower, but we allow names that are all lower-case.
Note that we use italics, in body type only, for titles of plays, films, books, short stories, poems, dance works, musical works including songsworks of art, records, videos and TV and radio shows. We do not use italics for the names of periodicals, including magazines and newspapers, or for the titles of articles in them. We do not use italics for parts of works of art, such as chapter titles of books or the names of symphony movements, or for the names of exhibitions and festivals.
Newspaper names are run with the city included, regardless of whether it is an official part of the paper's name; our treatment of the word "the" indicates whether the name we are using is the official one.
Upper-case "The" when the official name includes the city The Hamilton Spectator but lower-case it when we have inserted the city ourselves the Montreal Gazette. In second reference, "the" is upper-case only for papers without city names The Globe, The Gazette, but the Star, the Spectator. Use lower case when the paper's name is used as an adjective the story in The Globe, but the Globe story.
When reporting headlines, subheads, captions, the titles of magazine articles, chapter headings and the like, upper-case the first letter of each word, regardless of the style used in the particular publication. In Globe bylines, writers' names and the word "BY" are upper-case. In double bylines, the word "and" is lower-case. But lower-case court names in non-English-speaking countries that we have translated into the English equivalent China's supreme court. Court and bench when standing alone are usually lower-case, but for clarity be prepared to use upper case in direct quotations when the speaker is using the Court or the Bench as personifications, especially in parallel constructions with the Crown.
Upper-case the Chief Justice in second reference without the name, for both the federal and provincial levels, but lower-case the judge in second reference. Upper-case Your Honour and His Honour these terms usually arise only in quotes.
Lower-case jury, foreman, grand jury, coroner's jury, court reporter, bailiff. Dates, holidayshistorical periods Upper-case the names of all civic holidays, and all days or periods observed by commonly recognized religions Canada Day, Palm Sunday, Yom Kippur, Holy Week, Ramadan.
For clarity, upper-case the English translations of foreign holidays Lithuania's Independence Day. But lower-case more mundane days such as election day, nomination day, enumeration day, garbage day. Upper-case special names given to days, weeks, months and years for purposes of fund raising, education etc.
But note that there have been several ice ages, so these are lower-case. Upper-case decades when speaking of them as a distinctive period the Gay Nineties, the decadence of the Twenties, the Hungry Thirties, the Dirty Thirties.
But these same decades can be lower-case when used simply as time periods He worked at several papers in the twenties, thirties and forties. When the century is included, use figures the s. Lower-case centuries the ninth century, the 21st century. Geography North, south, east and west are lower-case when referring to simple directions the tanks rolled eastand so are northern, southern, eastern and western when not referring to a district that is distinctive for reasons other than simple direction the storm moved from eastern Alberta into southwestern Saskatchewan.
But upper-case these words when they refer to areas that are commonly considered to be set apart by climate, political administration, economics, language or even outlook. For most provinces, upper-case Northern and Southern. Local attitudes and usage are our guide. For example, England has the North and the South, but other directional adjectives are lower-case southeastern England. Lower-case the adjectives eastern, western, northern and southern when not attached to a geographical name or a well-defined region say Western Canadian businessmen, but western businessmen, eastern arrogance, southern cooking, northern hospitality.
The exception is the upper-case adjective Western when it means of the Western world or Western alliance. Lower-case coast north coast, east coast etc. But use upper case when referring to geographical areas people on the West Coast; he got a job on the Coast.
This is especially required in local names for coastal regions that do not lie in the direction that the name implies, such as British Columbia's North Coast and South Coast, which are actually the northern and southern sections of the West Coast.
But lower-case words such as prairie, delta, valley, peninsula and country when simply referring to physical features or characteristics the entire Saugeen valley is good pheasant country. When listing the name of more than one geographical feature or street, retain the upper case for the generic noun Lakes Huron and Erie, Hudson and James Bays, Peel and Sherbrooke Streets. Upper-case Greater in the official name of a city-centred region, such as Greater Vancouver Regional District, Greater London, but not in such merely descriptive terms as greater Chatham.
Upper-case Dominion, both as noun and adjective, when referring to Canada. Numbered labels In general, upper-case labels that include a number, such as Grade 1, No. In documents such as statutes, charters and constitutions, and in books and other published material, upper-case formal numbered headings, such as Part 2; Chapter 3; Act 2, Scene 3; Section d iii ; but not labels for divisions that are not headings, such as pageparagraph 4, line 2.
An exception is made for newspaper pages, which are upper-case by convention Page 1, Page 7. The word verse is upper-case for such works as the Bible in which verses are formally numbered, but not when referring to verses of poems and songs. Police and military Upper-case the formal names of police and military forces, and those of divisions such as corps, divisions, brigades, regiments, battalions, companies, platoons D Company, Company A, 52 Division.
But lower-case names of occupational groups such as a signals squad, a reconnaissance detail, and such police subdepartments as morality squad, traffic section, homicide division.
Do not upper-case "police department" without the name of the municipality. Also upper-case alternative names for the principal figures in various religions, such as the Enlightened One referring to Buddha, the Holy Prophet in Islam, the Apostle Paul. Upper-case the Twelve Apostles, but lower-case "the apostle" used without a name.
For ancient pagan religions and modern religions with more than one deity, lower-case the word god the god Jupiter, the goddess Saktiand also lower-case all pronouns. Upper-case the names of all modern religions Christianity, Shintoism, Islam and all their sects and denominations Protestant, Anglican, Sunni, Reform.
Upper-case shortened forms referring to members a Witness, a Mormonbut not the terms applied to non-members gentile or non-believers atheist. Upper-case the names of the sacred books of all modern religions, the names of their various versions, and the words Holy and Sacred when used to modify them the Bible, the Holy Koran, the King James Version, the Pentateuch.
But lower-case such adjectives as biblical and talmudic, and such generic terms as sacred scrolls.
capitalization - Should broader types be capitalized? - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange
Upper-case major events depicted in religious writings or religious history, such as the Exodus, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection, the Hegira, the Diaspora. But lower-case the regular observances of current adherents, such as mass, holy communion, confession, baptism, compline, seder, minyan. Lower-case heaven, limbo, purgatory and hell, except when used as an appellation for the Deity, as in "I thank Heaven.
Upper-case Church in reference to a religion or denomination The United Church of Canada, the Christian Science Churchbut lower-case when standing alone.
High offices are also upper-case without the name when given in full and referring to a specific person the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Pope, the Dalai Lama. But in second or generic references to offices held by many people, say the archbishop, a brother, the rabbi, the mullah. Religious holidays are upper-case. See note above on dates, holidays.
Science, nature, medicine Latin scientific names have the first letter of only the genus in upper case, even when the name of a subspecies is derived from a proper name, such as that of the Canadian beaver, Castor fiber canadensis.
They should be in italics. The levels of classification above genus, such as classes and families, are upper-case, e. We avoid using scientific names in most stories unless the specific species is at issue, but they sometimes appear in direct quotes. In medicine, Latin names have tended to hang on in everyday jargon more than they have in other scientific disciplines. In considering capitalization, there is a distinction between formal Latin classifications, in which the genus is upper-case as usual, and the same names standing alone or with non-Latin adjectives, in which case they are lower-case.
In Tagalog and its standard form, Filipinothe formal second-person pronouns Kayo and Ninyo and their oblique form Inyo are customarily and reverentially capitalized as such, particularly in most digital and printed media related to religion and its references. Purists who consider this rule as nonstandard and inconsistent do not apply it when writing. In Swedish, since du-reformenthe second person singular pronoun du may be capitalized as Du when addressed formally.
Some languages capitalize a royal we pluralis majestatise. The English vocative particle O, an archaic form of address, e. Thou, O king, art a king of kings. However, lowercase o is also occasionally seen in this context. Places and geographic terms[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message The capitalization of geographic terms in English text generally depends on whether the author perceives the term as a proper nounin which case it is capitalized, or as a combination of an established proper noun with a normal adjective or noun, in which case the latter are not capitalized. There are no universally agreed lists of English geographic terms which are considered as proper nouns.
The following are examples of rules that some[ which? In general, the first letter is capitalized for well-defined regions, e. MuztagataRiver Severn Otherwise, do not capitalize a generic term that follows a capitalized generic term Yangtze River valley Use lower case for plurals of generic terms Gobi and Taklamakan deserts [ citation needed ]; but " the Dakotas " Only capitalize "the" if it is part of the short-form formal place name The Hague vs.
Abbreviated When a term is used as a name and then subsequently a shorter term is used then that shorter term maybe used generically.
If that is the case do not capitalize. Watch out for bears when visiting the national park. This was also practiced in other Germanic languages mainly due to German influence: In German, all nouns are capitalized. Multiple-word proper nouns usually follow the traditional English rules for publication titles like in Robert the Bruce. Where placenames are merely preceded by the definite articlethis is usually in lower case as in the Philippines. Sometimes, the article is integral to the name, and thus is capitalized as in Den HaagLe Havre.
In other European languages, it is much more common for the article to be treated as integral to the name, but it may not be capitalized die Schweiz, les Pays-Bas, yr Almaen etc. A few English names are written with two lowercase "f"s: This originated as a variant script for capital F. A few individuals have chosen not to use capitals in their names, such as k. Cummingswhose name is often written without capitals, did not do so himself: Most brand names and trademarks are capitalized e.
When capitals occur within a word, it is sometimes referred to as camel case. In English, the names of days of the weekmonths and languages are capitalized, as are demonyms like Englishman, Arab. In other languages, practice varies, but most languages other than German which capitalizes all nouns do not. In Italian the name of a particular concept or object is capitalized when the writer wants to emphasize its importance and significance. Controversially, some authors capitalize common names of some animal and plant species.
As a general rule, names are not capitalized, unless they are part of an official list of names, in which case they have become proper nouns and are capitalized. This is most common for birds  and fishes. Names referring to more than one species e. Botanists generally do not capitalize the common names of plantsthough individual words in plant names may be capitalized for another reason: See the discussion of official common names under common name for an explanation.
Common nouns may be capitalized when used as names for the entire class of such things, e.
The Globe and Mail: Style Guide: capitalization
Names by which gods are known are capitalized, including GodAthenaand Vishnu. The word god is generally not capitalized if it is used to refer to the generic idea of a deitynor is it capitalized when it refers to multiple gods, e.
There may be some confusion because JudaismChristianityand Islam rarely refer to deity by a specific name, but simply as God see Writing divine names. Other names for the God of these three Abrahamic faiths, such as Elohim, Yahweh, and Lord, are also capitalized.