Workplace intimacy in leader follower relationships dating

[Full text] Affective commitment foci as parallel mediators of the relationship be | PRBM

workplace intimacy in leader follower relationships dating

In a study on humor styles of intimate couples (a relationship much closer than the behavior that is appropriate and acceptable within the work environment. Leader-followers relationship includes four dimensions: influence represented by .. Humor style and relationship satisfaction in dating couples. Keywords: workplace romance, job performance, affective commitment, consensual and committed relationship that can entail dating, touching, hugging, Kark R. Workplace intimacy in leader–follower relationships. Workplace intimacy in leader follower relationships dating.

However, we argue that romantic relations can have different motives such as ego satisfaction, exploitation, sexual intercourse, and long-term committed love relationships. Finally, the general romantic relationship literature suggests that committed romantic relationships and their manifestations in the form of love, long-term commitment, dating, affectionate touch, and kissing positively affect the behaviors and life satisfaction of romance participants.

Affective commitment as a mediator of the relationship between workplace romance and employee job performance A number of studies have suggested a positive relationship between workplace romance and affective commitment. Kark 31 suggests that intimate relationships can create emotional bonding with leaders, colleagues, and organization.

The positive experience of romantic relation creates feelings of affection toward the organization and organizational members that may be reciprocated and shape an organizational culture based on mutual affection, love, and commitment.

Additionally, a plethora of studies have theorized and provided empirical evidence about a positive relationship between affective commitment and employee job performance. Seen in this light, the affective commitment of health-care professionals is particularly important, as affection toward organization, profession, and patients is a key aspect of the quality of health-care services and patient satisfaction. Thus, we propose that affective commitment mediates the effect of lateral workplace romance on employee performance.

According to Wasti and Can, 15 we understand that workplace romance affects different foci of affective commitment — affective coworker commitment, affective supervisor commitment, and affective organizational commitment — that in turn are positively related to employee performance.

Moreover, we followed Wasti and Can 15 to use them as parallel mediators of the relationship between workplace romance and employee performance. This informs the following hypotheses. Family values in both Chinese and Pakistani cultures are strong.

Additionally, the literature suggests that cultural variations in the form of social, economic, and technological developments as well as ethnocultural diversity explain the difference in experiences of workplace romance and its effects on employee behavioral and performance outcomes of workplace romance. On the other hand, the strong family institution as well as cultural, religious, and societal taboos in Pakistani culture may not provide enough space for romantic relationships, particularly at the workplace.

The sample included males and females. The average age of the respondents was 36 years and the average work experience was 6. Before starting the survey, we tested the questionnaire in a pilot study with 20 respondents and five academicians. Initially, we contacted 1, paramedical staff in person and provided them with an information sheet that contained information about the purpose of the study, the definitions of the constructs of the study, and a promise of confidentiality.

In addition, the information sheet contained participation criteria that included the following three questions. Are you currently involved in a workplace romance? Are you willing to participate in the two rounds of the survey?

Would you introduce us to your immediate supervisors to gain some information about your general job performance? After several reminders and requests, paramedical staff responded positively about participating in the survey.

The purpose of data collection in two waves was to reduce the common method bias. A code was placed on each questionnaire to match the data collected in different rounds and from different sources.

The present study was conducted as a part of a project that was aimed to examine different forms of social relations and social capital, including bonding capital, bridging capital, and friendship and workplace romance.

In the first round, data about workplace romance and other forms of social relations were collected. In accordance with Chan et al, we used the nationality of respondents as a proxy measure for national culture. Data about culture were collected by asking the respondents about their nationality. In total, employees responded in the first round. After 3 months, data about the mediators the foci of affective commitment were collected, and employees responded in the second round.

Supervisor performance ratings are viewed to be more accurate and reliable than self-ratings. One supervisor, on average, rated the performance of 2. Supervisors rated the performance of the respondents who responded in both the data collection waves in June In addition, data from two different sources reduces common method bias.

Overall, we received responses that matched both data collection rounds and sources. Eight responses were discarded due to missing data. We used AMOS SEM and bootstrapping were used to test the hypotheses. All participants gave written informed consent. The scale measures the commitment level of the romance participants.

We used this scale, as we understand romantic relations to be consensual and committed relations. Studying these relationships carries important implications for health-care service provision, given the vitality of the roles of paramedics in the provision of these services.

This paper is organized into five sections. In Section 2, hypotheses are developed. Section 3 presents research methods. The results are presented in Section 4.

workplace intimacy in leader follower relationships dating

In Section 5, results are discussed, and the conclusions are presented. Hypothesis development Workplace romance and employee job performance Historically, the emphasis of the literature has been on sexual behavior and different forms of sexual activity. We argue that such a negative conceptualization of workplace romance is based on a restrictive view that assumes romantic relations to be utilitarian sexual relations and portrays them as inherently destructive for employee behaviors and performance.

Additionally, workplace romance literature mainly focuses on sexual relations, forced sex, and sexual behavior. In doing so, the literature has not exclusively focused on committed romantic relationships. Moreover, as noted by Khan et al, such a conceptualization of workplace romance has created issues that are particularly relevant to the operationalization of the concept.

Similarly, these measures cannot foreground the future intention of romantically involved participants and the future of their relationship. The problem is more evident in the third-party romance reports, as the observer can observe and witness only a few of the clearly visible aspects of the relationship such as kissing or hugging.

Thus, we propose the need to revisit the concept of workplace romance and its relationship and measures to bring to the fore the intensity, depth, and commitment involved in workplace romantic relationships and its performance and behavioral outcomes. Moreover, building on Khan et al, we expect that a consensual and committed workplace romantic relationship can have positive effects on employee behaviors and performance outcomes.

However, we argue that romantic relations can have different motives such as ego satisfaction, exploitation, sexual intercourse, and long-term committed love relationships.

workplace intimacy in leader follower relationships dating

Finally, the general romantic relationship literature suggests that committed romantic relationships and their manifestations in the form of love, long-term commitment, dating, affectionate touch, and kissing positively affect the behaviors and life satisfaction of romance participants.

Affective commitment as a mediator of the relationship between workplace romance and employee job performance A number of studies have suggested a positive relationship between workplace romance and affective commitment. Kark 31 suggests that intimate relationships can create emotional bonding with leaders, colleagues, and organization.

The positive experience of romantic relation creates feelings of affection toward the organization and organizational members that may be reciprocated and shape an organizational culture based on mutual affection, love, and commitment.

Additionally, a plethora of studies have theorized and provided empirical evidence about a positive relationship between affective commitment and employee job performance. Seen in this light, the affective commitment of health-care professionals is particularly important, as affection toward organization, profession, and patients is a key aspect of the quality of health-care services and patient satisfaction.

Thus, we propose that affective commitment mediates the effect of lateral workplace romance on employee performance. According to Wasti and Can, 15 we understand that workplace romance affects different foci of affective commitment — affective coworker commitment, affective supervisor commitment, and affective organizational commitment — that in turn are positively related to employee performance.

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Moreover, we followed Wasti and Can 15 to use them as parallel mediators of the relationship between workplace romance and employee performance. This informs the following hypotheses. Family values in both Chinese and Pakistani cultures are strong. Additionally, the literature suggests that cultural variations in the form of social, economic, and technological developments as well as ethnocultural diversity explain the difference in experiences of workplace romance and its effects on employee behavioral and performance outcomes of workplace romance.

On the other hand, the strong family institution as well as cultural, religious, and societal taboos in Pakistani culture may not provide enough space for romantic relationships, particularly at the workplace. The sample included males and females. The average age of the respondents was 36 years and the average work experience was 6. Before starting the survey, we tested the questionnaire in a pilot study with 20 respondents and five academicians.

Initially, we contacted 1, paramedical staff in person and provided them with an information sheet that contained information about the purpose of the study, the definitions of the constructs of the study, and a promise of confidentiality. In addition, the information sheet contained participation criteria that included the following three questions. Are you currently involved in a workplace romance?

workplace intimacy in leader follower relationships dating

Are you willing to participate in the two rounds of the survey? Would you introduce us to your immediate supervisors to gain some information about your general job performance? After several reminders and requests, paramedical staff responded positively about participating in the survey.

The purpose of data collection in two waves was to reduce the common method bias. A code was placed on each questionnaire to match the data collected in different rounds and from different sources.

The present study was conducted as a part of a project that was aimed to examine different forms of social relations and social capital, including bonding capital, bridging capital, and friendship and workplace romance. In the first round, data about workplace romance and other forms of social relations were collected. In accordance with Chan et al, we used the nationality of respondents as a proxy measure for national culture. Data about culture were collected by asking the respondents about their nationality.

In total, employees responded in the first round. After 3 months, data about the mediators the foci of affective commitment were collected, and employees responded in the second round. Supervisor performance ratings are viewed to be more accurate and reliable than self-ratings. One supervisor, on average, rated the performance of 2. Supervisors rated the performance of the respondents who responded in both the data collection waves in June In addition, data from two different sources reduces common method bias.

Overall, we received responses that matched both data collection rounds and sources. Eight responses were discarded due to missing data. We used AMOS SEM and bootstrapping were used to test the hypotheses.

Workplace Intimacy in Leader–Follower Relationships | Ronit Kark - viajeras.info

All participants gave written informed consent. The scale measures the commitment level of the romance participants. We used this scale, as we understand romantic relations to be consensual and committed relations.

The responses were measured on five points ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. Job performance was measured on a five-point scale from 1 performance below the minimum acceptable level to 5 performance consistently far exceeded expectations.

The scale items of all the variables are presented in Table 1. Table 1 Scale items Note: Control variables Hierarchical and lateral workplace romances are argued to have different effects on employee work-related behaviors and performance.

Moreover, the literature suggests that homosexual romances are more detrimental than heterosexual romances.