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The reasons for choosing this model to test the Sheldrake hypothesis were that the experimental design would allow chicks to demonstrate morphic resonance, if it occurred, at the time of their training experience and without any actual test manipulation. By training the chicks in a novel and hopefully unique environment a brightly coloured and patterned pen and using a "bead" - actually a yellow LED - of a colour that previous generations had not specifically experienced, at least in our laboratory, Sheldrake and I agreed that we would maximise the chance of finding any effect.
The actual experimental design was as Sheldrake describes it in his paper, and the hypothesis that we were testing was also clearly understood between us; that if any effect which might be attributable to morphic resonance occurred, there should be an increasing reluctance of successive hatches to peck at the neural yellow LED which previous generations had come to associate with sensations of sickness.
This increasing reluctance should be expressed in a cumulative increase in the latency to peck at the yellow LED by successive hatches when offered it during the "training" period of 30 s, whereas there should be no such increase in the latency to peck at the chrome bead.
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In addition to measuring latencies to peck during the training period it was also important to show that the chicks which had pecked the yellow bead and were then injected with LiCI did develop an aversion to it and therefore avoided the bead on test.
There are two constraints on these measures, imposed by the design of the experiment. First, there is always going to be an absolute minimum latency to approach and peck at the LED or the chrome bead. This minimum is partly dependent on experimenter variables, such as the moment from which the experimenter decides that the chick has observed the bead and therefore begins timing, and partly on the relative attractiveness of the yellow LED or the chrome bead to the chick.
In practice in turned out that the beads were not equally attractive to the chicks from the very beginning of the testing sequence, so latencies for the two beads were always somewhat different.
These differences were in part due to the chicks' ontogenetic colour preferences, in part to the fact that the yellow LED was differently shaped from the chrome bead, its stem thicker and not so easy for the experimenter to manipulate.
The second constraint is the converse of the first; because the test cut-off point is thirty seconds, this imposes a cut-off point to the timing; birds which do not peck within the period are conventionally either scored at the maximum - i.
These contraints "ceiling" and "floor" or "basement" effects inevitably skew the latency data, and must be taken into account in any statistical analysis, in addition to the possible practice effect as the initially naive and always blind experimenter works through the repetitive day-by-day experimental sequence. With these constraints in mind, let me turn to the data.
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These figures show the data both for latencies and number of pecks, in the form of weekly medians. In this and the next set of figures I show the full data set rather than omit the first few days as Sheldrake does. Thus throughout the period of the experiment, the "Garcia" effect, in terms of conditioned taste aversion, could be observed on testing the yellow-trained birds. The important question however is not what happens on testing the birds but whether there are any secular differencies in the pecking or latencies during training.
If morphic resonance were to be occurring, the latencies to peck at the yellow LED during training should steadily increase, and the ceiling effect would ensure a decrease in the number of birds successfully trained on yellow over the period of the experiment.
I shows, that this did not occur, although he fails to refer to this, which is the most significant feature of the data. At the beginning of the experiment, the number of birds successfully trained yellow or chrome was relatively low, reflecting the inexperience of the experimenter.
The figures rapidly improved however, and by the end of the experimental series virtually all birds were being trained successfully.
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Nor were there any differences in the success rate of yellow-trained compared with chrome-trained birds. This in itself tends to disconfirm Sheldrake's hypothesis. The most sensitive measure of any morphic resonance effect should however be the training latencies and pecking behaviour. Figs 2a and b shows these data for the. There is no secular trend for a reduction in the number of pecks on the yellow bead, nor for an increase in the latency, again disconfirming Sheldrake's prediction. Sheldrake's response is to ignore the first few days of the experiment, on the grounds that this is where the "experimenter effect" of Ms Harrison learning how to train might be most apparent.
There are thus no significant differences between the secular trends in either yellow or chrome beads, even with the "correction" of omitting the first days of the experiment. Thus the crucial prediction made by the hypothesis, which Sheldrake agreed before the experiment began, is also disconfirmed. How then to explain the apparently miraculous emergence of significant differences between the chrome and yellow groups in Sheldrake's handling of this data?
This is partly because he has ignored the issue of basement and ceiling effects of the experimental design, hence enabling him to argue about residual differences in latency between yellow and chrome irrespective of the fact that the yellow latencies shift, if at all, in precisely the reverse direction to that he would predict, and partly because he has chosen to omit some of the data.
Although Sheldrake and I disagreed on our interpretation of the data, we did agree that he should also send his analysis to Professor P.
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Bateson is an experienced ethologist and pioneer of imprinting studies in the chick, who originally initiated me into the world of avian learning in the late s see ROSE, a for discussion and who has like me acted as a judge for some of the competitions Sheldrake has run to "test" morphic resonance.
Bateson reanalysed our data, and has given me permission to quote his conclusions letter dated 9th Maythe contents of which Sheldrake has also seen: The difference in the next block of 7 days borders on significance, but otherwise there are no differences.
A court officer at CCMCC may make the interim order providing certain conditions are met in respect of a charge over land. Parties may also apply for a review of an interim charging order made by a court officer. Once an interim order is made at the CCMCC and served, the parties will have a period of 28 days between service on them of the interim order and referral to a judge to object to the making of the final charging order.
If an objection is received the matter will be sent to a local County Court hearing centre. The service provisions are also amended. Amendments are now made to the practice direction to support those rule changes. Consequential amendments are made to PD A new part sets out the procedure for applications to attach earnings.
Responses to the application will be dealt with at the CCMCC, but where the judgment debtor does not respond the process will be sent to a local County Court hearing centre. The following forms are amended: