What are OasisAmerica cultures? | Yahoo Respuestas
Main · Videos; Sims 4 dating youtube free dating sites in kamloops bc · mesoamerica oasis america y aridoamerica yahoo dating · not afraid of anything yahoo. Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: The endeavor to create cultural histories of Mesoamerica dates to the early twentieth century, with ongoing .. These peoples came from Oasisamerica, Aridoamerica, and the northern region of Mesoamerica, driven by climate. Main · Videos; Speed dating plano tx is chemistry dating site free aridoamerica y mesoamerica yahoo dating aridoamerica y mesoamerica yahoo dating dating.
Writing came to be used throughout the Mayan area, although it was still regarded as a noble activity and practiced only by noble scribes, painters, and priests. Astronomy remained a matter of vital significance because of its importance for agriculture, the economic basis of Mesoamerican society, and to predict events in the future such as lunar and solar eclipses, an important feature for the rulers, proving to the commoners their links with the heavenly world.
This allowed other regional power centers to flourish and compete for control of trade routes and natural resources. In this way the late Classic era commenced. Political fragmentation during this era meant no city had complete hegemony. Various population movements occurred, caused by the incursion of groups from Aridoamerica and other northern regions, who pushed the older populations of Mesoamerica south. Among these new groups were the Nahuawho would later found the cities of Tula and Tenochtitlan, the two most important capitals of the Postclassic era.
These and other city-states of the region found themselves involved in bloody wars with changing alliances, until Tikal defeated, in order, Dos Pilas, Caracol, with the help of Yaxha and El NaranjoWakaCalakmul's last ally, and finally Calakmul itself, an event that took place in with the sacrifice of Yuknom Cheen's son in Tikal.
That led to construction of monumental architecture in Tikal, from to ; the last date documented there was Toward the end of the late Classic period, the Maya stopped recording the years using the Long Count calendar, and many of their cities were burned and abandoned to the jungle.
In Oaxaca, Monte Alban reached its apex c.
Its fate was not much different from that of other cities such as La Quemada in the north and Teotihuacan in the center: In the last century of the Classic era, hegemony in the valley of Oaxaca passed to Lambityecoseveral kilometers to the east. Teotihuacan initially competed with Cuicuilco for hegemony in the area. In this political and economic battle, Teotihuacan was aided by its control of the obsidian deposits in the Navaja mountains in Hidalgo.
The decline of Cuicuilco is still a mystery, but it is known that a large part of the former inhabitants resettled in Teotihuacan some years before the eruption of Xitlewhich covered the southern town in lava. Once free of competition in the area of the Lake of Mexico, Teotihuacan experienced an expansion phase that made it one of the largest cities of its time, not just in Mesoamerica but in the entire world.
During this period of growth, it attracted the vast majority of those then living in the Valley of Mexico. Teotihuacan was completely dependent on agricultural activity, primarily the cultivation of maizebeansand squashthe Mesoamerican agricultural trinity. However, its political and economic hegemony was based on outside goods for which it enjoyed a monopoly: Anaranjado ceramics, produced in the Poblano-Tlaxcalteca valley, and the mineral deposits of the Hidalgan mountains.
Both were highly valued throughout Mesoamerica and were exchanged for luxury merchandise of the highest caliber, from places as far away as New Mexico and Guatemala. Because of this, Teotihuacan became the hub of the Mesoamerican trade network. Teotihuacan refined the Mesoamerican pantheon of deities, whose origins dated from the time of the Olmec.
Trade links promoted the spread of these cults to other Mesoamerican societies, who took and transformed them.
It was thought that Teotihuacan society had no knowledge of writing, but as Duverger demonstrates, the writing system of Teotihuacan was extremely pictographic, to the point that writing was confused with drawing. The fall of Teotihuacan is associated with the emergence of city-states within the confines of the central area of Mexico. It is thought that these were able to flourish due to the decline of Teotihuacan, though events may have occurred in the opposite order: The Maya in the Classic period[ edit ] Main article: Maya civilization Location of the Mayan people and their principal cities The Maya created one of the most developed and best-known Mesoamerican cultures.
Although authors such as Michael D. Coe believe that the Mayan culture is completely different from the surrounding cultures, many elements present in Maya culture are shared by the rest of Mesoamerica, however, including the use of two calendars, the base 20 number system, the cultivation of corn, human sacrificeand certain myths, such as that of the fifth sun and cultic worship, including that of the Feathered Serpent and the rain god, who in the Yucatec Maya language is called Chaac.
The beginnings of Mayan culture date from the development of Kaminaljuyuin the Highlands of Guatemala, during the middle Preclassic period.
According to Richard D. The archaeological evidence indicates that the Maya never formed a united empire; they were instead organized into small chiefdoms that were constantly at war.
They probably had a greater mastery of the art of war than Teotihuacan, yet the idea that they were a peaceful society given to religious contemplation, which persists to this day, was particularly promoted by early- and midth century Mayanists such as Sylvanus G.
Confirmation that the Maya practiced human sacrifice and ritual cannibalism came much later e. Bas-relief in the museum of Palenque, Chiapas Writing and the Maya calendar were quite early developments in the great Maya cities, c. Archaeologists once thought that the Maya sites functioned only as ceremonial centers and that the common people lived in the surrounding villages. However, more recent excavations indicate the Maya sites enjoyed urban services as extensive as those of Tikal, believed to be as large asinhabitants at its peak, circaCopanand others.
Drainage, aqueducts, and pavement, or Sakbe, meaning "white road", united major centers since the Preclassic. The construction of these sites was carried out on the basis of a highly stratified society, dominated by the noble class, who at the same time were the political, military, and religious elite.
The elite controlled agriculture, practiced by means of mixed systems of ground-clearing, and intensive platforms around the cities. As in the rest of Mesoamerica, they imposed on the lowest classes taxes—in kind or in labor—that permitted them to concentrate sufficient resources for the construction of public monuments, which legitimized the power of the elites and the social hierarchy.
During the Early Classic Period, c. Finally, it seems the great drought that ravaged Central America in the 9th century, internal wars, ecological disasters, and famine destroyed the Mayan political system, which led to popular uprisings and the defeat of the dominant political groups.
Many cities were abandoned, remaining unknown until the 19th century, when descendants of the Maya led a group of European and American archaeologists to these cities, which had been swallowed over the centuries by the jungle.
It was a period in which military activity became of great importance. The political elites associated with the priestly class were relieved of power by groups of warriors.
What are OasisAmerica cultures?
In turn, at least a half century before the arrival of the Spaniards, the warrior class was yielding its positions of privilege to a very powerful group that were unconnected to the nobility: The Postclassic period is divided into two phases. The first is the early Postclassic, which includes the 10th to the 13th century, and is characterized by the Toltec hegemony of Tula.
Many of the social changes of this final period of Mesoamerican civilization are related to the migratory movements of the northern peoples.
These peoples came from Oasisamerica, Aridoamerica, and the northern region of Mesoamerica, driven by climate changes that threatened their survival. The migrations from the north caused, in turn, the displacement of peoples who had been rooted in Mesoamerica for centuries; some of them left for Centroamerica. There were many cultural changes during that time.
One of them was the expansion of metallurgy, imported from South America, and whose oldest remnants in Mesoamerica come from the West, as is the case also with ceramics.
Aridoamerica - Wikipedia
The Mesoamericans did not achieve great facility with metals; in fact, their use was rather limited a few copper axes, needles, and above all jewellery. The most advanced techniques of Mesoamerican metallurgy were developed by the mixtecoswho produced fine, exquisitely handcrafted articles. Remarkable advances were made in architecture as well. The use of nails in architecture was introduced to support the sidings of the temples, mortar was improved, the use of columns and stone roofs was widespread — something that only the Maya had used during the Classic period.
In agriculture, the system of irrigation became more complex; in the Valley of Mexico especially, chinampas were used extensively by the Mexica, who built a city ofaround them. Oasisamerica was a broad cultural area in pre-Columbian southwestern North America. Its name comes from its position in relationship with the similar regions of Mesoamerica and nomadic Aridoamerica. As opposed to their nomadic Aridoamerican neighbors, the Oasisamericans were primarily an agricultural society.
Yet the climate did not permit very efficient cultivation as in Mesoamerica, and so they often resorted to hunting and gathering to meet their dietary needs.
The story of the origins of the cultural superarea of Mesoamerica takes place some years after the separation of Mesoamerica and Aridoamerica.
Some of the Aridoamerican communities farmed as a complement to their hunter-gatherer economy. Those communities, among whom one finds adherents to the Desert Tradition, later would become more truly agricultural and form Oasisamerica.
The process of introducing agriculture in the desert-like land of northern Mexico and the southern United States was gradual and extensive: Based on maize remnants found in Bat Cave, Arizona, it appears that agriculture practices date back to at least BC. Given that the oldest traces of maize in North America date back to the year BC, it would seem that the hypothesis of importation of agriculture from the south is correct.
It is less certain who brought the agricultural technology and what role they played in the development of the high cultures of Oasisamerica.