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Characterization of the Urtica Dioica Leaf Extracts and Studies Its Effects on DNA and Sperm in Rats V/V) extract of the leaves of Urtica dioica L. on the DNA and sperms in Rat. . *Corresponding Author: Yasamin khudiar Alghanimi, E-mail: [email protected] Export Date: 18 October dating. When a woman flaunted an illegal hunt, her Bumble match — a game Dad secretly places dating ad for his 3 'wonderful, successful, handsome, alas. CrossRef citations to date. Altmetric. Listen KEYWORDS: Essential oils, Tamarix dioica, chemical composition, GC-MS, Antibacterial activity.

Aqueous extract of Trichosanthes cucumerina at different dose levels, i. The volume of each administered dose did not exceed 1 ml. Control group received 1 ml of distilled water.

The mice were then observed for 24h and mortality was recorded.

Equal number of males and females were maintained in each group and caged separately. Group I served as normal and received distilled water. The drug treatment was carried out on every day morning with the help of oral catheter for a period of six weeks.

The intensity of red quinoneimine was measured at nm in Autoanalyzer Logotech, TecnoItaly. Oral glucose tolerance test OGTT [10] Overnight fasted animals were challenged by loading glucose solution orally at a dose of 2. Blood samples were withdrawn immediately after glucose load 0 min reading and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and min of oral glucose load. Glucose tolerance curves were drawn by plotting concentration of glucose in blood versus time intervals.

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Estimation of glycogen content in tissue [11] Collection of tissue: Rats were sacrificed by an overdose of anesthetic ether. The liver and skeletal muscle were immediately excised and chilled in ice cold 0. The assay was based on the color reaction, which occurs when a dilute solution of glucose was heated with concentrated sulphuric acid.

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Since glycogen hydrolyses to give glucose in sulphuric acid, the above principle was used to determine glycogen. The intensity of pink color produced was measured spectrophotometrically at nm.

Results Acute toxicity LD 50 of the aqueous extract of Trichosanthes cucumerina was found to be 1. Blood glucose of diabetic animals starts decreasing from the 1 st week of drug treatment. Further 2 weeks and 4 weeks of drug treatment, decreased the blood glucose of diabetic animals continuously [ Table - 1 ]. Difference between 4 th week and 6 th week of drug treatment is statistically non-significant.

Glibenclamide at a dose of 1. Progress in weight gain of animals in drug treated group was observed up to six weeks. Body weight of different groups of animals at basal level and at the end of 1 st2 nd4 th and 6 weeks of drug treatment are represented graphically [ Figure - 1 ]. In case of normal group, the blood glucose attained peak level at 30 min followed by subsequent fall up to min. In case of NIDDM group, the blood glucose reached peak level at 45 min and remains high even after 2h.

In case of the drug treated group, the blood glucose reached peak level at 30 min and subsequently decreased up to 2 h [ Figure - 2 ]. Decrease in blood glucose started after one week of drug treatment and continued up to four weeks. After four weeks, blood glucose of diabetic animals was found to be maintained within the normal levels as there was no significant difference between four weeks and six weeks of drug treatment.

Decrease in blood glucose may be due to cucurbitacin glycosides present in the drug. The failure of diabetic animals to gain weight during the course of time is due to continuous excretion of glucose in diabetic subjects. Ranitidine was used over other drugs because of its superior ulcer treating property[ 11 ].

After 1 h animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and stomach was incised along the greater curvature and examined for ulcers[ 12 ].

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Ulcer index was calculated by adding the total number of ulcers per stomach and the total severity of ulcers per stomach. The pooled group ulcer score was calculated[ 13 ]. Cold restraint stress was performed by following the method of Gupta et al. The animals were then sacrificed by cervical dislocation and ulcers were scored on the dissected stomachs as described above. The homogenate was centrifuged at rpm for 10 min and the supernatant was again centrifuged at 12, rpm for 15 min and the obtained mitochondrial fraction was used for the following estimations[ 17 ].

The catalase CAT enzyme was estimated by the method[ 18 ]. The superoxide dismutase SOD activity was estimated by the inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced -phenazine methosulphatenitrobluetetrazolium reaction system as described by Nishikimi et al.

On day 6 after the last dose, the pyloric ligation was performed by the method of Shay et al. The stomach was replaced carefully and the abdomen wall was closed in two layers with interrupted sutures.

The animals were deprived of water during the post-operative period. After 4 h, stomachs were dissected out and contents were collected into tubes and gastric secretion volume, pH and HCl concentration were estimated. The ulcers were scored as described under ethanol-induced ulcers. Gastric contents were analyzed for total acidity by titrating against 0.

The pH of gastric juice was measured by using pH paper strips of varying ranges. The color of the pH paper after the procedure was matched with standard scale and the pH was recorded for different groups of animals. Rat gastric mucosal damage induced by high concentrations of ethanol has widely been used to investigate gastroprotective effect of medicinal plants[ 23 ].

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Ethanol destroys the protective factors of the mucosa, such as the mucus barrier, also gastric wall mucus depletion induced by ethanol is one of the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for gastric lesion Koo et al. It indicates MDFE could act as a good ulcer protective agent and reduced the ulcer index significantly. Parietal cells secrete acid into stomach lumen. Mucus layer forms a physical barrier on the surface of the stomach and proximal duodenum, and consists of a mucus gel into which HCO3- is secreted.

Within the gel matrix the HCO3- neutralizes acid diffusing from lumen. This creates a pH gradient and the gastric mucosa is maintained at neutral pH. The ethanol administration depleted the gastric wall mucus drastically to Ulcers occur because of stress are due to both physiological and psychological factors[ 26 ].

Generally stress-induced ulcers also involve damage by reactive oxygen species ROS apart from acid and pepsin related factors.

SOD converts the reactive superoxide radical to H2O2, which if not scavenged by CAT can by itself cause lipid peroxidation by generation of hydroxyl radicals.

Consequently decrease in CAT levels has led to increase in accumulation of these ROS and thus, has caused increased lipid peroxidation and tissue damage[ 27 ]. Preventive antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase are the first line of defence against reactive oxygen species.