redox reactions - predicting spontaneous redox reactions
Slick underwriting thy metros below me vice wittmer dating. spontaneity of redox reactions yahoo dating · leigh ross dan dakich dating · interracial dating app. Electronic publication date: Day: 27 Month: 02 Year: Kutch, Gujarat, India, Phone: +, e-mail: [email protected] Anaphy-laxis and anaphylactic reactions in the perioperative period are a significant This compound has a unique property of oxidation-reduction function and tissue staining. [email protected] Electro less plating uses a redox reaction to deposit metal on an object without . patent in that Roux reaction was spontaneous and complete, while the .. glass or polyethylene bottle; label it with contents and date.
Methylene blue is administered to check tubal patency during the procedure.
Extravasation of methylene blue is a recognized complication of diagnostic laparoscopy and chromopertubation. Anaphy-laxis and anaphylactic reactions in the perioperative period are a significant concern for surgeons and anesthesiologists. This is a review literature for performing a safe practice evaluation and management. How to cite this article: Bagadia R, Kanabar V. World J Lap Surg ;10 2: It has an opposite effect on hemoglobin depending upon its concentration.
In higher levels, methylene blue converts the ferrous iron of reduced hemoglobin to the ferric form and produces methemoglobin. Lower levels help in converting methemoglobin to hemoglobin in drug-induced methemoglobinemia.
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Evaluation of tubal factor infertility is moving from mere anatomical assessment to morphological and functional enquiry of the patency of the tubes. Life-threatening anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions to methylene blue have been reported in the literature; 56 recently, methylene blue has been used for various conditions like sentinel node biopsy, but due to the rare reporting of its reactions, it was considered safest among dyes.
Results were taken from recent case reports, basic science literature, and clinical studies. Searches in the literature on methylene blue toxicity during laproscopy chromopertubation were conducted via pubmed, google scholer, medline and chochrene liberary database. No language restriction was applied to searches. Drug analysis like the right amount of dilution; the right amount to be installed; identification of signs and symptoms on table or during perioperative period; the immediate treatment management protocol like epi-nephrine, steroids, histamine 1 and 2 blocking agents, and oxygen administration; postoperative cutaneous test; and systematic allergiological investigation of all the drugs and substances given during the perioperative period is important.
Other signs and symptoms include mental status changes, shortness of breath, headache, fatigue, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. According to the studies, one should always keep in mind the dangerous effect of methylene blue, alternatively diluted povidone iodine can be used. This patient had developed methemoglobinemia After 2 minutes, the oxygen saturation declined, and after 5 minutes patient developed crepitations and cyanosis; at mL of fluid patient developed very rare features.
Anaphylactoid reaction occurred due to the dye causing intrapulmonary vascular vasospasm; a generalized vasoconstriction and some amount of anemic hypoxia could have caused this.
According to Nolan 10 when the patient was injected with methylene blue dye intracervically, she developed inflammatory peritonitis after approximately 24 hours, where she complained of abdominal distention and pain; exploratory laparotomy was done revealing peritoneal ascites and sterile inflammatory exudates.
This pt was treated with corticosteroids. According to Mhaskar and Mhaskar, 11 methylene blue is a treatment for methemoglobinemia, but his patient had tuberculosis, i.
Bilgin et al 8 also presented a case of methemoglobinemia after methylene blue instillation, but his patient had G6PD deficiency.
Spontaneity of RedOx Reactions?
Ash-Bernal et al 7 did a retrospective study on cases where they discussed about the acquired cause of met-hemoglobinemia. The most common drug causing it is dapsone. Robert and Barbieri 13 recommend using 10 mg of methylene blue in mL of NS to reduce the symptoms of anaphylaxis.
Despite efforts of resuscitation, she died. On postmortem findings, the lungs were edematous, congested, blue stained, with features of pulmonary edema. Oxygen saturation dropped spontaneously, and spectrophotometric analysis showed methemoglobinemia. Rzymski et al 5 discussed a case of anaphylactic reaction to methylene blue after chromopertubation.
Electrochemistry, thermodynamics, and equilibrium Video transcript - [Voiceover] Our goal is to predict whether or not lead two plus can oxidize solid aluminum or solid copper under standard state conditions.
And also, to calculate these standard cell potentials E zero for each reaction at 25 degrees C. So we have a standard reduction in potential table, a very shortened version of it where we have our half-reactions written as reduction half-reactions on the left, and the standard reduction potentials for those half-reactions on the right, measured in volts.
Our question wants to know whether lead two plus can oxidize these solid metals. So therefore, lead two plus is functioning as an oxidizing agent, so it itself must be being reduced, but it is functioning as an oxidizing agent. In general, an oxidizing agent can oxidize any reducing agent that lies below it on our standard reduction potential table, so here is lead two plus, all right, so we have our stronger oxidizing agents going up on the left side.
An an oxidizing agent can oxidize any reducing agent below it on our table, so if I find aluminum here, aluminum is below lead two plus. So we would predict that lead two plus can oxidize aluminum, so our prediction is yes for aluminum. So we can actually draw a diagonal line from lead two plus to aluminum, and we predict this will work. This reaction will work. So sometimes you'll see this called the diagonal rule. Next, let's predict whether lead two plus can oxidize solid copper.
An oxidizing agent can't oxidize a reducing agent that appears above it on our standard reduction potential tables, so if I draw a line from lead two plus to solid copper, all right, we're going up here.
So this reducing agent, copper, is above lead two plus. And so this should not work, so our prediction is no, this will not work. So no, lead two plus cannot oxidize copper under standard state conditions. Let's go ahead and calculate these standard cell potentials for each of these reactions to just confirm our predictions. So we'll start with lead two plus oxidizing solid aluminum.
So if lead two plus is oxidizing, we're going to write the lead two plus, this half-reaction here, we're going to leave it how it is as a reduction half-reaction. So a reduction half-reaction is lead two plus, plus two electrons, going to solid lead. And so the standard reduction potential for this half-reaction is negative. So this is negative. Next, we're going to write the oxidation half-reaction for aluminum, so here is aluminum, so we're going to write an oxidation half-reaction, so we need to reverse this reduction half-reaction.
So we write solid aluminum, right, is going to aluminum three plus. To do that, it needs to lose three electrons, so loss of electrons is oxidation. So we need to find the standard oxidation potential for this half-reaction now. And we've done this several times. When you reverse a reduction half-reaction and turn it into an oxidation half-reaction which is what we've done down here, you just change the sign on the standard reduction potential.
So the standard reduction potential is negative 1. So the standard oxidation potential is positive 1. If we wanted to write the overall reaction, we need to balance everything. So we need to get our number of electrons equal. So we could do that by multiplying our first half-reaction here by three, because that gives us six electrons. So three times two gives us six electrons. The number of electrons needs to be the same, so we need to multiply our second half-reaction by two, because two times three also gives us six electrons.
So let's do that calculation here. So we have three Pb two plus, so for reduction, we would have three Pb two plus, plus three times two electrons, gives us six electrons, and this would give us three solid Pb. So three Pb solid. So we're multiplying our half-reaction, but remember, we do not multiply our standard reduction potential by three because voltage is an intensive property. So we leave our standard reduction potential as negative.
All right, let's do our next half-reaction, so our oxidation half-reaction. So we would have two aluminum, so two aluminum, and then two, this is going to give us two Al three plus, and six electrons, two times three gives us six electrons. And once again, we do not multiply our oxidation potential by two because voltage is an intensive property.
So our standard oxidation potential remains positive 1. To get our overall reaction, we just add together our two half reactions, right, so let's add these together, so we're going to add these together to get our overall.